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Lupus erythematosus (LE) is the designation of a spectrum of diseases that are linked by distinct clinical findings and distinct patterns of polyclonal B cell immunity. It ranges from life-threatening manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) to the limited and exclusive skin involvement in chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CCLE). More than 85% of patients with LE have skin lesions, which can be classified into LE-specific and -nonspecific. An abbreviated version of Gilliam's classification of LE-specific lesions.


Systemic lupus erythematosus

This serious multisystem autoimmune disease is based on polyclonal B cell immunity which involves connective tissue and blood vessels. The clinical manifestations include fever (90%); skin lesions (85%); arthritis; CNS, renal, cardiac, and pulmonary disease. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may uncommonly develop in patients with chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CCLE); however, lesions of CCLE are common in SLE.


Causes:

The tissue injury in the epidermis results from the deposition of immune complexes at the dermal-epidermal junction. Immune complexes selectively generate the assembly of the membrane-attack complex, which mediates membrane injury. CD3+ lymphocytes of the cytotoxic Suppressor type.


Symptoms:

* Skin rashes
* Discoid lupus with the red skin patches on the skin and scaliness is a special characteristic rash that can lead to scarring.
* Hair loss can occur with flares of SLE even without skin rashes in the scalp.
* Other common skin symptoms include skin sores or flaky red spots on the arms, hands, face, neck, or back; mouth or lip sores.

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