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Squamous cell carinoma (SCC) is a malignant tumor of squamous cells, arising in the epidermis and stratified squamous mucosa. The most common etiologies of epidermal SCC are ultraviolet radiation (UV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. In many cases, a precursor to invasive SCC exists associated with both these etiologic agents. Treatment of precursor lesions prevents invasive SCC.


* UV radiation
* Other radiation: X-ray and grenz-ray exposure are associated with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Epidermis formation.
* Arsenic exposure
* Xeroderma pigmentosum
* Bazex syndrome


A thickened or tender keratosis may be developing into invasive SCC. SCCs are often crusty and may bleed easily. On the lips, SCC is more common in smokers.

SCC may also develop in thermal burn scars and longstanding leg ulcers.

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